"The Rgveda frequently refers to the cooking of the flesh of the ox for offering to gods, especially Indra, the greatest of the Vedic gods who was strong-armed, colossal, and a destroyer of enemy strongholds. At one place Indra states, 'they cook for me fifteen plus twenty oxen'."

(DNJ, p. 29, source cited:RV X.86.14ab) [उक्ष्णो हि मे पञ्चदश साकं पचन्ति विंशतिम | ]


1. Griffith (also here or here).

2. Max Muller (here .




The first published translation of any portion of the Rigveda in any Western language was into Latin, byFriedrich August Rosen Rigvedae specimen, London 1830. Predating Müller's editio princeps of the text, Rosen was working from manuscripts brought back from India by Colebrooke.

H. H. Wilson was the first to make a complete translation of the Rig Veda into English, published in six volumes during the period 1850-88. Wilson's version was based on the commentary of . In 1977, Wilson's edition was enlarged by Nag Sharan Singh Nag Publishers, Delhi, 2nd ed. 1990.

In 1889, Ralph T.H. Griffith published his translation as The Hymns of the Rig Veda, published in London 1889.

A German translation was published by Karl Friedrich Geldner, Der Rig-Veda: aus dem Sanskrit ins Deutsche Übersetzt, Harvard Oriental Studies, vols. 33–37 Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1951-7.

Geldner's translation was the philologically best-informed to date, and a Russian translation based on Geldner's by Tatyana Elizarenkova was published by Nauka 1989-1999

A 2001 revised edition of Wilson's translation was published by Ravi Prakash Arya and K. L. Joshi. The revised edition updates Wilson's translation by replacing obsolete English forms with more modern equivalents, giving the English translation along with the original Sanskrit text in Devanagari script, along with a critical apparatus.

In 2004 the United States' National Endowment for the Humanities funded Joel Brereton and Stephanie W. Jamison as project directors for a new original translation to be issued by Oxford University Press.